From Stockholm To Paris:Climate Crisis


Day by day, world has been being covered by natural disasters including droughts, floods, hurricanes and many more. When we consider about our day to day lives, our observances over natural surroundings around us, generally we all have a perception that there is something wrong with nature and something which has bad future effects has been happening. In world news, there are so many views regarding economic disturbances, famines, lack of harvest, food shortages and all other related phenomena.There are so many new type of epidemics, which are difficult to control. It’s obviously clear that system of the world or nature has been changing in harmful manner. As a result of that human beings have to suffer from economic, ecological and many other aspects. However, decades ago, environmental scientists identified this condition and called it as a global warming. Global warming word itself means simply increasing the temperature of earth’satmosphere. This condition happening as a result of excessive occurrence of greenhouseeffect. Greenhouse effect is caused by greenhouse gases like Sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, methane, watervapor and etc. Naturalgreenhouse effect is good to maintain stable temperature in earth. However, as a result of industrial emotions of such gases, nowgreenhouse effect is being occurred excessively and this incident causes to global warming. Meanwhile, at the beginning, the term “global warming “became sarcastic to policy makers, even now US President Trumph is trying to withdraw from recently concluded Paris convention. In contrast, many US states pledged to work according to Paris convention despite the attitudes of President. Kyoto protocol was the major environmental global player before ratifying Paris convention. But, it’s a controversy about the success of Kyoto protocol due to the stubborn behavior of major industrial countries like US and China.Recently,while participating to “Annual Forum of Climate Action for Business, Investors and Policy Makers”, which was held in India,Patricia Espinosa,Executive Secretary on United Nations Framework on Climate Change emphasized that Paris agreement goals could not be achieved until everybody take part.So, in this moment it`s worthy to take a look on history of UN intervention toward climate discussions.

The UN Scientific Conference on the conservation and utilization of resources

became the first UN body to the consider deterioration of natural resources and their use. This was happened in 1949. They only directed their attention to how to manage those resources more usefully for economic and social development, and there was no any conservation purpose within their platform. In 1968, UN council for economic and social development took environmental issues serious and they added that topic to their agenda, fortunately general assembly also endorsed it and as a result of it first UN environmental summit was held in Stockholm, Sweden 1972.It is known as Earth Summit. It was officially known as, Stockholm Conference on Human Development. This conference adopted a declaration that had valuable principles for environmental preservation, and was able to introduce first global action plan for environmental protection. This declaration considered the issue of climate for first time in known history and warned government to measure and evaluate magnitude and impact of climatic issues. There was a suggestion to establish stations to monitor atmospheric compositions. As a suggestion of this summit,UNEP was born and headquarters were located in Nairobi. At the beginning,UNEP mainly considered over issues like watermanagement, deforestation and others, not about climatic issues. At that time, it was not a big deal; like today.

With a time, concern over climatic change and atmosphere was increased. As a result of it,the very first international instrument on climate: Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air pollution was adopted by UNEP, Earth Watch Program to monitor and evaluate the long-range transport of air pollutants.These new observations revealed about the high damages towards the ozone layer and then UNEP initiated Vienna discussions and paved the way to adopted Vienna Convention on Protection of Ozone Layer. Inthis time there were tangible evidences on air pollutions, because many European lands became a victims of acid rains.

Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and Beyond – a framework to guide national action and international cooperation on policies and programs aimed at achieving environmentally sound development was adopted by UN general assembly in 1987 from recognizing the importance of the issue. In similar year, the Montreal protocol was adopted to decrease the emission of elements like CFC which can cause depletions of ozonelayer. In1987, ‘‘Year 2000 and Beyond’, there was no central place for climate issue, howeverthe term, “sustainable development “was firstly used in Beyond 2000 declaration.

In 1988, global warming and the climatic change became the big issues in global political arena. As a result of it,UNEP had to organized internal seminars, discussions regarding those topics. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a forum for

the examination of greenhouse warming and global climate change, can be considered as a result of above mentioned discussions. The General Assembly identified climate change

as a specific and urgent issue.  In 1989, the Montreal Protocol on Substances

that Deplete the Ozone Layer entered into force.

UN general assembly, gradually directed much attention towards, climatic changes. the General Assembly agreed to convene theUnited Nations Conference on Environment and Development,1992. Rio Summit established a new framework for aspiring international

Conventions tosafeguard the integrity of the world environment in its Rio Declaration and

Agenda 21, which depicted a global agreement on sustainable development. Chapter 9 of Agenda 21 considering over protection of the atmosphere. The most important event during

the Conference was the opening for signature of the United Nations Framework

Convention on Climate Change, the Convention was to control atmospheric amounts of “greenhouse gases” at a level that would avoid excessive occurrence of global warming. It entered into force in 1994.

The milestone action of the climate change action was the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in to the UNFCC in 1997. It purpose was to reduce the industrialized countries

emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5 per cent below the 1990 levels in the period of 2008 to 2012. The Protocol, which opened for signature in March 1998, came into force from 2005, after it was negotiated by over 160 nations. However, in Kyoto protocol main industrialized countries, China and US did not actively contribute to reach treaty targets of low emission greenhousegases. But some other industrialized countries indicated a successful reduction of green hose emissions.But, in Paris agreement, since 2015 and 2016, US and China has been partners of it.Paris agreement can be considered as another protocol to the UNFCC. However, it’s a unified world effort to reduce the emission of greenhousegases. Let’s hope it to be successfully implemented!!